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I’ve written before about the issues surrounding our near-limitless demand for palm oil. So you might expect I’d be applauding Iceland for promising to cut palm oil from their own-brand products from 2019 onwards – the kind of self-imposed deadline most campaigners can only dream of. And you might think I’d be up in arms about the ban that has stopped their beautiful and heartbreaking advert from reaching millions. And you’d be partly, but not completely, right.Continue reading
As we all know, natural automatically means good. Nothing in nature has ever hurt anyone, ever.
In the first part of my series deconstructing the term ‘natural’, I talk genetically modified organisms and domestication, and ask what is really natural, anyway?
Virtually all mammals wisely choose to avoid eating chilli peppers and other foods that taste ‘hot’. New research shows that Chinese tree shrews have evolved to eat large quantities of chillies in their diet by tuning down their taste buds to the chemical that makes these foods spicy.
Yalan Han of the Kunming Institute of Zoology in China, and their colleagues found that Chinese tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) in the lab were happy to feed on chilli peppers, unlike lab mice which stop eating food if it’s too spicy. To see whether this unusual behaviour was due to reduced numbers of pain receptors on the tongue, or reduced sensitivity of those receptors, the team looked at gene expression patterns and found that while mice and tree shrews had similar numbers of pain receptors, the tree shrews’ receptors were less responsive to capsaicin – the chemical that gives chillies their spice.
Tree shrews are thought to share a relatively recent common ancestor with primates, just 85 million years ago.
Spiciness is down to chemicals called capsaicinoids, which include capsaicin in chilli peppers and related chemicals in peppery plants like Piper boehmeriaefolium, which is naturally abundant in Chinese tree shrew habitat. These compounds evolved to prevent herbivores eating the leaves and stems of plants that produce them – chemical warfare against would-be attackers. Capsaicinoids stimulate the TRPV1 receptor which is found on the surface of pain-sensitive cells, particularly those on the tongue. TRPV1 receptors are designed to detect dangerously hot food and produce a pain response to protect the animal from burning itself, but evolution has exploited a quirk in their structure meaning they are also triggered by dietary compounds like capsaicin.
Looking to the genome, the team were able to track the reduced sensitivity of the tree shrews’ TRPV1 receptor to a mutation that made a single amino acid change – just one link in the protein chain – at the site that capsaicin binds, making the receptor less likely to bind capcaisin molecules that hit it. This simple change makes the shrews taste less of the spiciness of their food.
The ability to feed on Piper boehmeriaefolium and other spicy plants that are common in the tree shrews’ natural environment may have driven evolution of this simple but effective way to increase tolerance to spicy foods.
The moral of the story is this – never get into a chilli-eating contest with a tree shrew.
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Ticks feed on the blood of vertebrates, but this diet is low in B vitamins, which are vital for cellular metabolism. A study published earlier this year shows that African soft ticks (Ornithodoros moubata) supplement their diet with vitamin B from bacterial symbionts.
Parasites are thought to diversify with their host species, but the theory has rarely been tested. Kevin Johnson at the University of Illinois and his colleagues sequenced the genomes of 46 species of lice that parasitise birds or mammals, and two non-parasitic bark lice, and constructed an evolutionary tree. They estimated that parasitic lice first emerged between 90 and 100 million years ago, but didn’t begin to diversify until 66 million years ago – around the time of the dinosaurs’ extinction.
As I’ve mentioned before, living in a large densely-packed social group, like a city or an ant colony, comes with some drawbacks – perhaps worst of which is the risk of catching a contagious diseases. Earlier this year I wrote about research showing that raider ants treat injured workers’ wounds, helping them to heal. Now, a new study shows that the queen can pass on resistance to diseases she’s encountered, arming her workers against pathogens.
I’ve spent more time than most observing ants, and I’ve come to find them ‘cute’ – something few other people understand, and that is often hard to convey. So it’s nice to find a paper that offers the opportunity to give people a glimpse into the cuteness I see in ant behaviour.
Ants clean the wounds of injured nest mates, often saving their lives and keeping infection out of the colony.
I’d like to talk about a very important issue, very close to my heart, and one that I think needs greater public awareness – the definition of the word ‘bug’.
See, people think they can just throw the word bug around willy-nilly. Anything small, flying or irritating, is a bug. Any pest, is a bug. But what many people don’t realise is the word isn’t just a colloquial term for insect or invertebrate, it isn’t a synonym for shelled or armoured creatures, it has a real scientific definition.
The word bug refers to insects in one particular order – Hemiptera, or the True Bugs.
What are the effects of yoga and meditation on the brain? (Asked by @leximills)
Yoga and meditation have effects on physiology, brain chemistry, and cognitive processes; these vary depending on the exact type of practise being performed and how long a person has practised it for. Studies of brain activity confirm that meditation can achieve a state of calm, thoughtless awareness, by suppressing brain regions involved in external attention and irrelevant information, and activating brain regions involved in internalised attention and positive emotions. Meditation is thought to activate the parasympathetic-limbic pathways, reducing heart rate, lowering blood pressure and slowing breathing. Meditation practises can fundamentally change the shape, structure and function of the brain – reinforcing neural networks, developing particular brain regions and influencing the production of key neurotransmitters and hormones in the brain related to attention, self-awareness and emotional control. Yoga has far-reaching effects on the body, reducing inflammation, boosting mood and making long-term practitioners feel more awake. It may even speed up learning in childhood and slow the natural cognitive declines that come with ageing. However, our understanding of the effects of meditative practises on the brain and body is still in its infancy – much more work remains (especially large-scale, carefully controlled trials).